Bronchitis Pdf: Bruised Ribs from Coughing
The human skeletal system includes many bones that give shape to the human body. The rib cage, which is also known as the thoracic cage, is really a bony framework that provides protection to the bodily organs located in the thoracic cavity. Besides the a dozen pairs of bent bones called ribs, other aspects of the rib cage include an elongated T-shaped bone referred to as sternum, 12 thoracic vertebrae, intercostal muscles and costal cartilages that connect the ribs to sternum. Though blunt chest trauma is the most common cause of broke or bruised ribs, sometimes, ribs gets bruised due to violent coughing. Here's some here is how our own ribs proceed throughout the act of breathing and exactly why you can produce bruised ribs coming from coughing.
Influenza The symptoms of influenza and the common cold are similar, however the two diseases are not the same, with different effects on the body. It is caused by viruses made up of RNA (Ribonucleic acid), as opposed to the rhinoviruses and coronaviruses of the common cold. Influenza is not meant to be taken lightly. Its virus form and family can cause serious harm, in a short infection period. It kills between 3,300 - 50,000 people per year. Flu is extremely contagious in nature, as the viruses adapt and evolve into new strains on infection. The best example of this adaptation is swine flu, where the virus family combined from 3 different species (human, bird and pig), to create a deadly influenza strain. The range of contagion is anyone within 6 feet can pick up the flu from an infected person. This characteristic of influenza can cause epidemics and on a world-wide scale, cause a pandemic.
By the lung diseases given in this article we can make out how susceptible this organ is towards getting diseases. So, maintain a healthy diet, stay away from smoking and follow your doctor's advice. Take care!
Causes of Productive Cough
The underlying causes of productive cough may be mild to severe. For example, chesty cough resulted due to common cold is easily treatable; whereas those caused due to emphysema or other chronic lung problems are life-threatening. Frequent exposure (or inhalation) to chemical irritants, smokes, fumes, environmental pollutants, and alike allergens may also trigger cough with phlegm. In most patients, productive cough is commonly manifested in the morning.
Prevention is better than cure and this motto is especially true for influenza. Clean and hygienic environment and personal habits are the most important steps in preventing the flu. To reduce the infection risk even further, vaccination for children and adults is recommended. Bronchitis in the acute form is not dangerous and needs to run its course. To prevent chronic bronchitis, avoid smoking and air pollutants. In the matter of flu vs bronchitis, one aspect is clear - keep clean and at the first sign of trouble, visit a doctor.
While COPD encompasses respiratory conditions like emphysema and chronic bronchitis, smoking (includes long-term exposure to secondhand smoke) is cited as the single largest cause of this life-threatening disease. Air pollution and exposure to occupational fumes may also lead to this condition. Even exposure to cooking fire without proper ventilation may lead to COPD, in the long run. Chronic acid reflux or GERD is said to worsen COPD symptoms. In some rare cases, genetic disorders can also lead to this condition.
- Case of a severe asthma attack, oxygen therapy and steroids might be required.
- Particular homeopathic treatments may also be used to treat breathing problems in puppies.
Almost all of us have experienced productive cough, which may be because of a common cold, bronchitis, or other respiratory tract infections. Coughing up phlegm is rather a good sign, as accumulation of the same can lead to chest infections and other medical complications. Nevertheless, a chronic cough condition with phlegm that is discolored (yellow, rusty-brown, green, etc.) should not be neglected, as it can be a symptom of some serious lung ailments.
Common Cold and Flu Flu and the common cold are infections of the upper respiratory tract, and so, both can affect the throat, besides producing a host of other symptoms. Both common cold and influenza or flu are viral illnesses that can cause a sore throat, fever, a runny nose, muscle aches, headaches, and a dry, hacking cough. The dry cough caused by upper respiratory infections can give you a feeling of something being stuck in the throat.
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- The human respiratory system consists of anatomical structures that act as passageway for inhaled air.
- The air that we breathe in, flows through the nasal passage and travels through the pharynx, larynx and the trachea.
- The trachea or the windpipe branches further into the right and left bronchial tubes.
- The bronchial tubes branch out into smaller branches that are called bronchioles.
- Clusters of tiny sacs, also referred to as alveolar sacs, are located at the end of the bronchioles.
- These sacs are surrounded by thin-walled capillaries.
The oxygen from these tiny sacs is passed on into the capillaries, while carbon dioxide from the capillaries is released into the sacs, and is then exhaled out. While the air supplies us with the life-giving oxygen, there are unwanted environmental irritants, allergens or pathogens that we may inhale. Inhalation of these substances can cause inflammation of the airways. The terms 'bronchitis' and 'bronchiolitis' refer to the inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles respectively. Now that you have a basic idea about the anatomy of the respiratory system, let's learn about the difference between bronchitis and bronchiolitis.
Recent studies suggest that about 15-20% children are suffering from pollen allergy. Seasonal pollen allergy too can turn into bronchitis when necessary precautionary measures to control the symptoms are put on the back burner. No wonder, people who show allergic reactions from exposure to pollen, dust and mold, are predisposed to bronchitis.
You can also try a home remedy. Let your own dog breathe in steam. Serve a few drops of essential oils in hot water. The combined effect of steam and vaporized essential oils may help in clearing up the chest blockage. It will also throw open the blocked airways. The aforementioned cure will help in case of mild wheezing, but it would be better to consult a veterinarian if you are dog is exhibiting signs and symptoms such as coughing, vomiting, nose bleeding and excessive panting.
Other than these remedies, certain lifestyle and dietary changes are also advisable. Avoid consuming tobacco and excess of caffeine. So, cut down on your smoking, and make sure that you get enough exercise. Make it a point to go for a walk early in the morning. The fresh air will really make a big difference to your health. Take extra care during seasons when your symptoms worsen. These home remedies will make your immune system stronger and reduce the recurrent bouts of bronchitis.
What is Viral Bronchitis
Viral bronchitis is caused by the virus (family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses)) that also causes common cold and influenza (flu). A person suffers from bronchitis when the viral infection, causing cold and flu, reaches the lungs and affects the bronchi. People having a weak immune system are more prone to contracting viral infection. When the infection reaches the airways, mucus is formed, blocking the airways. The mucus built up in the airways causes difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, etc.
The ancient health beverage of the Chinese herbalists, Greeks and Romans, licorice is also another reliable home remedy to get rid of cough and cold. Having demulcent and expectorant properties, licorice tea aids in the expulsion of the phlegm from the respiratory tract, while soothing the sinus cavities and throat. Licorice tea is especially good for productive cough. Seep the roots in boiling water for about 10 minutes and strain it. You can add a sweetener to the beverage if you don't like the strong flavor.
Though not very reliable, the phlegm color meaning helps in quick identification of the underlying reason for wet cough. While yellow or green mucus denotes infection in the respiratory tract or lungs, gray or brown phlegm is due to inhalation of dust, fumes, tar, and similar pollutants. Also, the consistency of the expectorate is checked in sputum examination to confirm the causes. If required, the doctor will suggest chest X-ray, blood tests, and other diagnostic tests to rule out severe diseases.
- Diagnosis The condition is generally diagnosed through an X-ray of the chest or a CT-scan.
- However, nowadays, chest computed tomography (CMT) is the most common method used to check the formation of bullae and their size.
- It has also been observed that patients with amyloidosis generally show an obvious formation of bullae.
- Researchers working in this field have referred to bullae as paper bags, which on getting filled assume a spherical shape.
- There is an internal gas exchange that keeps on happening within the bullae.
- This is the primary reason because of which the bullae do not take part in the respiration process though they stay in the path of the air passage.
- The formation of bullae in the lungs may take a bad shape and result in dyspnea.
Nasal decongestants or sprays are often prescribed for people who have blocked nasal passages, which may be due to common cold, flu, or sinus infection. Also, inhaling steam and taking steam baths help in clearing nasal congestion and removing mucus efficiently.
Apple Cider Vinegar
This is actually the only vinegar which is by far the most dependable one to consume. It helps reduce the inflammation in the throat. Mix a tbsp. of vinegar in a glass of water and then sip slowly. If you hate the taste you might add some honey towards the potion so as to give the drink a nicer taste.
- On the other hand, dynamic compliance represents pulmonary compliance during periods of gas flow, such as during active inspiration.
- It can be affected by changes in airway resistance, chest wall compliance, and lung compliance.
- Dynamic compliance is always less than or equal to static lung compliance.
- It is calculated using the following equation:
Case of chronic conditions, wherein cough with phlegm do not show prompt results with the above mentioned natural remedies, it is imperative to take medical help, rather than resorting to self medication. After conducting diagnostic tests, the physician will prescribe therapeutic drugs appropriate for patient's condition.
- Treatment of bronchitis involves the intake of certain medications that are prescribed depending upon what is actually causing the bronchitis.
- No matter what bronchitis medication is prescribed, smokers need to quit their unhealthy habit of lighting the cigarette.
- Tobacco smoke is bound to worsen bronchitis, and therefore smoking cigarettes has to be stopped immediately.
- Patients with chronic bronchitis should not hesitate or feel shy to wear masks whenever outdoors.
- This will minimize exposure to air pollutants, thereby helping to manage this condition more effectively.
How to Treat Bruised Ribs?
Bruised ribs are usually caused because of rib accidental injuries, but if your are suffering from severe rib pain from coughing, medical doctors would take a look at the chest X-ray to ensure that the times of persistent coughing never have impacted the ribs. Doctors normally recommend the use of painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs in order to provide alleviation. Steroids may be prescribed in the event that the pain is very severe. Application of heat pads or ice packs may also help in remedying the signs and symptoms due to pulled intercostal muscles or perhaps inflamed costal cartilage.
Is extremely important to take relaxation and let the ribs cure. One should refrain from any activity that may exacerbate the signs. Since violent coughing may make the ribs to be able to break, it is extremely essential to deal with the underlying reason for violent coughing. A variety of viral or bacterial infections can lead to chaotic coughing. It is therefore, important to run particular tests to see the actual underlying condition. If your cough will be dry, one may benefit by using cough suppressants. If the patient will be suffering from a effective cough, then one are able to use a great expectorant or some other natural home remedies that may help in coughing out phlegm. Since breathing problems could be triggered due to irritation of airways due to exposure to environmental pollutants, one need to prevent contact with things that trigger allergies or irritants.
COPD Staging and GOLD System
Calculation of COPD life expectancy is mainly based on the degree of severity of the disease, which is measured through a pulmonary function test called spirometry. This test measures the degree of airway obstruction and the capacity of the lungs to hold air and blow it out. As per this test, COPD is classified as mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Usually, the spirometry measurements are given in FEV1/FVC ratios. FEV1 is the forced expiratory volume in one second, which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of a breath. FVC denotes the forced vital capacity, which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a whole large breath.
The severity of COPD is determined as per the FEV1 value, measured twice - before and after administering a bronchodilator. The person should be healthy and free of any respiratory tract infection, during the test. He/she must also avoid taking any bronchodilator, for at least 24 hours before the test. This staging system was developed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
Is almost impossible to come up with accurate figures, as far as life expectancy and medical conditions are concerned. In most cases, the figures are rough estimates that are calculated on the basis of certain factors like the severity of the given medical condition. It may also happen that those in the severe stages of the disease outlive those in mild and moderate stages. Instead of worrying about the figures, it is always better to concentrate on proper treatment and lifestyle changes, especially in a disease like COPD. This will help you manage the symptoms and hinder the progression of the disease to a great extent. Here is a brief overview about the factors that influence the life expectancy of a person, who has been detected with COPD.
Treating symptoms is very difficult. This is because, many times, it is a nosocomial infection and the organism is highly resistant to many antibiotics and medications. The Klebsiella pneumoniae treatment includes use of antibiotics like aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Many patients show a good response to third generation drugs like amikin, tobramycin, clavulanate, aztreonam, gentamicin, etc.
Benefits of Taking Herbal Tea
A number of benefits of herbal tea can be availed by the consumption of this beverage. Herbal tea can be used as a remedy for dry as well as wet (or productive) cough. Here are some of the positive effects of taking a cup of herbal tea. These herbal teas can also be given to children. Sipping hot herbal tea and inhaling the steam emanating from it, helps control the symptoms and also speeds up the recovery time of this respiratory illness.
- Increase your fluid intake to speed up the recovery from viral infections like cold and flu.
- Drink slightly warm water and soups, which will help thin the mucus and facilitate its expulsion.
To sum up the difference between bronchitis and flu, here is a tabular comparison of the basic facts: Name\ Feature Flu Bronchitis Body Areas Affected Nose, throat and lungs Lungs Chemical Make-up RNA viruses Viruses and bacteria Who Is At Risk Elderly, infants, pregnant women, kidney, heart or lung disease victims Infants, seniors and smokers Types Influenza Type A, B, C Chronic and acute Duration days Acute - 1 week to a month, Chronic - 2-3 months in a year Complications Pneumonia, brain infection, bronchitis, sinus and ear infections Pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension.
- Coughing alone is not actually a disease, but it is an indication of problems in the respiratory tract.
- In fact, a cough is a self-defense mechanism, triggered by the presence of any foreign or unwanted particles in the respiratory tract.
- And phlegm is nothing but the mucus secreted by the lungs in response to infection.
- Post nasal drip, a manifested symptom of cold, sinusitis and pneumonia may also result in phlegm buildup in the throat.
- When the mucus is expelled out of the body and becomes visible, it is called phlegm or sputum.
- As a summation of the above, remember that viral bronchitis is caused due to the same virus that causes cold and flu.
- Therefore, if suffering from these conditions, you should get them treated immediately in order to prevent viral bronchitis.
- This section is actually on the recommended dosage of the antibiotics commonly employed for the treatment of bronchitis.
- It also lists down the possible side effects that may get induced in the body after the use of these drugs.
- Note that, dosage of a few of these drugs are not given as they depend on factors such as age, severity, and the causal agent.
- Also, many of them share similar unwanted effects.
Case your own dog is vulnerable to allergies, you have to make sure that there are no allergens in the surroundings.
- One of the most common risk or side effect that can occur in people suffering from whooping cough is secondary infection.
- The infection in the lungs can worsen and lead to bacterial pneumonia.
- You must be aware that pneumonia of any kind can be serious and life-threatening.
- Therefore, more than 50% of the cases of the total number of deaths caused due to whooping cough, are caused due to bacterial pneumonia.
- It should be noted that the effects of bacterial pneumonia are more pronounced and severe in babies and children.
Prognosis The most obvious symptom of this condition is trouble while breathing, when exerting oneself. But such a symptom does not alarm the individual, because he might feel he is not used to the exercise or just inactive. When breathing becomes difficult in simple, less strenuous activities, like walking or, even while sitting still or sleeping, that's when an individual realizes that something is wrong. The first step in diagnosing, is a physical examination. Standard tests are chest x-rays and a high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). This lung condition is varied in type and each case has unique causes, so misdiagnoses can be made. The most accurate and final step in testing, is a lung biopsy, which carries out an extensive tissue sample analysis.
- Tea prepared with lemon, cayenne, honey, and apple cider vinegar can also provide relief in throat soreness.
- Ginger and chamomile tea can also be taken to get relief from a sore and dry throat.
Case of heartworm disease as well as transmissions, antibiotics might be employed to treat the problem.
Once Klebsiella pneumoniae enters the lungs, it causes many destructive changes in the lungs. It leads to necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, etc. of the lung tissues. This leads to production of a very thick, jelly like mucus that is called 'currant jelly sputum'. The rapid destruction of the lung tissues is the distinguishing factor for Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Initially, Klebsiella pneumoniae will cause a sudden high fever. This fever is generally more than 103F. The fever is accompanied by other symptoms like chills and dizziness. The patient will also cough up the thick currant jelly sputum. This sputum may show streaks of blood.